Waversa Systems WDAC3C Waversa Systems WDAC3C

Understanding Waversa

Get to know the technology that makes Waversa unique

WAP (Waversa Audio Processor)

To first introduce Waversa, it is best to discuss what is at the heart of the product line, and that common denominator is the Waversa Audio Processor.

The Waversa Audio Processor is fundamentally unique in the industry, a very different approach to digital processing, designed from the ground up.

The Waversa approach encompasses processing by both in-house designed and built processing hardware as well as integrated custom software, rather than by using what is available in, or software manipulation of processing by, “off-the-shelf” DAC chips, or other purely software-based processing methods.

Waversa Systems’ WAP (Waversa Audio Processor) provides;

  • A hardware-based processing method with a very low jitter rate and highly accurate timing.
  • A proprietary solution from digital input to processor.
  • Dual WAP, capturing all signals on the optimized route.
  • Centralised clock management in the signal path.
  • Technology to minimise quantisation error.
  • Huge information processing up to 32-bit 1.5 MHz.
  • The highest level signal restoration algorithm by applying medical technology.

WAP (Waversa Audio Processor):

Generally, upsampling uses an FIR filter (Finite Impulse Response, fixed-form impulse response filter). Interpolation is performed during the upsampling process to correct the sound quality.

FIR interpolation is a mathematical calculation that estimates and fills between digital points.

Waversa Systems uses a proprietary WAP instead of the basic FIR filter included in the DA chip. Waversa Audio Processor (WAP) is designed in-house with a multi-stage structure, including a number of proprietary FIR filters and IR filters (Infinite Impulse Response Filter), and performs high-resolution upsampling, creating a waveform that is as identical as possible to the original analog signal. This is the role of WAP.

The software processing method has elements that cause errors because the processing is sequential and complicated.

On the other hand, in the hardware processing method, since signal processing is performed once, at the same time, there is no room for jitter, and the timing of the audio signal is exactly the same.

Waversa Systems’ digital signal processing is hardware-based, so digital signals are processed simultaneously in a simple, optimised path resulting in fewer errors, and the timing of the audio signal is handled more accurately.

WAP figure 1

Dual WAP Processing

Dual WAP captures all signals in order to dramatically increase processing speed and efficiently manage signal processing.

The first WAP (P1) processes all input signals, and the second WAP (P2) receives signals processed by P1 on 12S and decodes signals with clocks according to sampling rates.

In this way, by assigning a unique role to each digital processor, signal interference is minimised, more sophisticated clock management is performed, and sound quality benefits from accurate signals that do not compromise digital signal integrity.

Dual WAP processing diagram

32-bit 1.5 MHz data processing

The most recently developed WAP has greatly increased the amount of data that can be processed.

This new WAP has succeeded its predecessor (24-bit/368kHz) with 32-bit/1.5MHz data processing. For comparison, in 16-bit, 65,532 digital signal processes are performed; in 32-bit, there are 4 billion digital signal processes, and the sophistication of signal processing is dramatically increased.

The heart of WAP lies in signal restoration using 32-bit 1.5MHz data processing, allowing for processing of huge amounts of information.

Data signal conformity with 16 bit / 44.1, 24 bit / 192 and 32 bit /1.5MHz processing speeds figure
Data signal conformity with 16 bit / 44.1, 24 bit / 192 and 32 bit /1.5MHz processing speeds

To put it simply, the improved internal processing speed of 32-bit/1.5MHz is similar to upgrading from DVD quality to 4K quality. This dramatically increases the detail and dynamic range that can be expressed.

The higher the WAP level, the more sophisticated the processing per unit time. This improves sound image and detail, overall producing a more natural sound. The tone of the instruments is also flexible, organic, and easy to hear. Each Waversa product has different processing capabilities that, when linked, create a cumulative benefit.

WAP-X (Waversa Audio Processor Extension)

Reproducing the sound of vacuum tubes

WAP / X (Waversa Audio Processor Extension) that reproduces the sound of vacuum tubes. The characteristics of a vacuum tube amplifier that has been deeply loved for its warm tone are reproduced using digital technology. These overtone characteristics of WAP / X were developed focusing on the 1940’s WE300B.


The technology adds a sense of overtones in WAP / X and WAP, realising the sound of a transparent and warm vacuum tube, digitally reproduced technology designed to be upgradeable in future firmware updates.

High-end audio processing is a fairly complicated process involving a huge amount of data in real-time. Waversa addresses this in two parts. The most recent breakthrough is to task the new generation field-programmable gate array, which is an exceedingly complex fast logic circuit, to handle resource-intensive algorithms.

By utilising the FPGA for overtone processing algorithm [WAP/X], accurate real-time processing of many harmonics can be achieved. Waversa has characterised the harmonics of a classic 1942 Western Electric 300b and digitally replicated them using a hardware-based algorithm integrated into both the new generation FPGA and Waversa Audio Processor (WAP). This allows for the experience of warm overtones without the need for vacuum tubes.

In the digital realm, harmonics are often masked by jitter and electrical noise inherent in digital equipment. Waversa’s approach focuses on minimising these issues and bringing forth the desired harmonics. It is worth noting that there are limitations to the capabilities of vacuum tubes, hence the need for virtual replication of higher harmonics present in music.

The degree of harmonics can be adjusted by the end-user, as well as the ability to bypass this type of processing. Dynamic Range Enhancement is another unique processing algorithm by Waversa. It is not a volume control or output gain setting, but it enhances the dynamics of compressed recordings. Both the Harmonic (WAP-X) and Dynamic Range Enhancement algorithms offer significant flexibility, and the optimal settings depend on recording and end-user preferences. They act as seasonings that can elevate a gourmet meal to sublime heights.

This picture depicts harmonic spectrum of 1kHz signal at 65 watt into 8 ohm load. Notice the signature even order harmonics generated by the WE300B tube.
This picture depicts harmonic spectrum of 1kHz signal at 65 watt into 8 ohm load. Notice the signature even order harmonics generated by the WE300B tube.

WNDR (Waversa Network Direct Rendering)

The biggest problem with streaming widely used networks using DLNA is that the standard does not consider continuous audio streaming. It is primarily designed for packet-based data transmission, allowing multitasking Ethernet switches to function seamlessly while maintaining accuracy. However, this transmission method generates noise during the buffering process, resulting in extremely poor sound quality.

WNDR (Waversa Network Direct Rendering) is an advanced proprietary protocol developed by Waversa Systems to address these issues. It has been specifically designed to minimize communication delays and provide excellent noise immunity. Unlike other protocols, WNDR is a dedicated protocol optimized for continuous signal processing without buffering. This eliminates the need for a conversion process between protocols, resulting in improved sound quality.

The WNDR protocol offers the following advantages:

  • Transmission scheme optimized for continuous signal processing without buffering
  • Protocol with strong immunity to noise
  • Protocol without conversion process by dedicated route
  • System capable of increasing WAP level when WNDR devices are interconnected, resulting in improved sound quality

WNDR ensures the transfer of pure music with minimal or no buffering, minimizing noise during signal transmission and eliminating notable distortion of sound quality.

Noise generation with standard USB and ethernet vs WNDR

When reading buffered data, such as with standard USB and Ethernet connections, the process of reading and transmitting data with a renderer board occurs intermittently, resulting in electrical noise generation. The stable transfer of continuous information without buffering is becoming a core technology for the future, especially as media integration aligns with communication.

WNDR (Waversa Network Direct Rendering) technology addresses this challenge by achieving stable clock synchronization without buffering, offering a significant advantage in sound quality. By unplugging the network cable, it is possible to observe the presence of buffering. With DLNA, music continues to play for 30 seconds or more, while with ROON RAAT, music plays for several seconds, indicating the presence of buffered music data. However, with WNDR, the music is interrupted almost immediately upon unplugging the network cable, as there is no buffering in the WNDR protocol.

WNDR Example

Waversa digital devices with WNDR multiplying the WAP level

Waversa Systems devices are unique in the consumer digital product market, as they operate with a proprietary music data transfer protocol known as WNDR. This protocol offers a synergistic effect when all Waversa devices are integrated, working in conjunction with the WAP (Waversa Audio Processor) to achieve even better sound quality.

When devices like WCORE, WRouter, and WDAC3C are all connected (as illustrated in below) and the WNDR protocol is selected for each device, a clear and high-quality sound experience can be achieved.

WNDR improving WAP connection example


View the Waversa Systems product range

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